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The Khazars, part 21 RUSSIA AND THE KHAZARS Yep, here it comes AGAIN! Aren't we ever going to be through with this noxious subject? NO! This is the next in the series from The Iron Curtain Over America: Having traced the Knighthood of Teutonic Order from its origin to its dissolution as a military-religious brotherhood, and having noted the development of successor sovereignties down to the obliteration of Prussia in 1945, we must turn back more than a thousand years to examine another thread--a scarlet one--in the tangled skein of European history. In the later years of the dimly recorded first millennium of the Christian era, Slavic people of several kindred tribes occupied the land which became known later as the north central portion of European Russia. South of them between the Don and Volga Rivers and north of the lofty Caucasus Mountains lived a people known to history as Khazars. These people had been driven westward from Central Asia and entered Europe by the corridor between the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea. They found a land occupied by primitive pastoral people of a score or more of tribes, a land which lay beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent under Trajan (ruled 98-117 A.D.), and also beyond the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire (395-1453). By slow stages the Khazars extended their territory eventually to the Sea of Azov and the adjacent littoral of the Black Sea. The Khazars were apparently a people of mixed stock with Mongol and Turkic affinities. Around the year 600, a belligerent tribe of half- Mongolian people, similar to the modern Turks, conquered the territory of what is now Southern Russia. Before long the kingdom [khanate] of the Khazars, as this tribe was known, stretched from the Caspian to the Black Sea. Its capital, Ityl, was at the mouth of the Volga River. [H: I want YOU to know that this information is not only verified by the "Jews" but is presented in the History of the Jews, by Solomon Grayzel, Philadelphia--The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1947. I stress this so my scribe and Nora don't get drawn and quartered by the Zionists of TODAY who claim there are no such things as "Khazars".] In the eighth or ninth century of our era, a khakan (or chagan, roughly equivalent to tribal chief or primitive king) of the Khazars  wanted a religion for his pagan people. Partly, perhaps because of incipient tension between Christians and the adherents of the new Mohammedan faith (Mohammed died in 632), and partly because of fear of becoming subject to the power of the Byzantine emperor or the Islamic caliph, he adopted a form of the Jewish religion at a date generally placed at c. 741 A.D., but believed by historian Vernadsky to be as late as 865. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. VI, pp. 375377), this chieftain, probably Bulan, "called upon the representatives of Judaism, Christianity and Mohammedanism to expound their doctrines before him. This discussion convinced him that the Jewish faith was the most preferable, and he decided to embrace -- PJ 76 -- page. 51 it. Thereupon he and about 4,000 Khazars were circumcised; it was only by degrees that the Jewish teachings gained a foothold among the population." In his History of the Jews, (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Vol. III, 1894, pp. 140-141), Professor H. Graetz gives further details: A successor of Bulan, who bore the Hebrew name of Obadiah, was the first to make serious efforts to further the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish sages to settle in his dominions, rewarded them royally, founded synagogues and schools...caused instruction to be given to himself and his people in the Bible and the Talmud, and introduced a divine service modeled on the ancient communities. After Obadiah came a long series of Jewish chagans, for according to a fundamental law of the state ONLY Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne. The significance of the term "ancient communities" cannot be here explained. For a suggestion of the "incorrect exposition" and the "tasteless misrepresentation" with which the Bible, i.e., the Old Testament, was presented through the Talmud, see below in this chapter, the extensive quotation from Professor Graetz. Also in the Middle Ages, Viking warriors, according to Russian tradition by invitation, pushed from the Baltic area into the low hills west of Moscow. Archaeological discoveries show that at one time or another these Northmen penetrated almost all areas south of Lake Ladoga and West of the Kama and Lower Volga rivers. Their earliest, and permanent, settlements were north and east of the West Dwina River, in the Lake Ilmen area, and between the Upper Volga and Oka rivers, at whose junction they soon held the famous trading-post of Nizhniy-Novgorod. These immigrants from the North and West were principally "the 'Rus'--a Varangian tribe in ancient annals considered as related to the Swedes, Angles, and Northmen" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XIX, p. 712). From the local Slavic tribes, they organized (c.862) a state, known subsequently from their name as Russia, which embraced the territory of the upper Volga and Dnieper rivers and reached down the latter river to the Black Sea and to the Crimea. Russ and Slav were of related stock and their languages, though quite different, had common Indo-Germanic origin. They accepted Christianity as their religion. Greek Orthodox missionaries, sent to Rus [i.e. "Russia"] in the 860's baptized so many people that shortly after this a special bishop was sent to care for their needs. The "Rus" (or "Russ") were absorbed into the Slav population which they organized into statehood. The people of the new state devoted themselves energetically to consolidating their territory and extending its boundaries. From the Khazars, who had extended their power up the Dnieper Valley, they took Kiev, which was an important trading center even before becoming, in the 10th century, the capital of a large recently Christianized state. Many Varangians (Rus) had settled among the Slays in this area (the Ukraine), and Christian Kiev became the seat of an enlightened Westward-looking dynasty, whose members married into several European royal houses, including that of France. The Slays, especially those in the area now known as the Ukraine, were engaged in almost constant warfare with the Khazars and finally, by 1016 A.D., destroyed the Khazar government and -- PJ 76 -- page. 52 took a large portion of Khazar territory. For the gradual shrinking of the Khazar territory and the development of Poland, Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other Slavic states, see the pertinent maps in Historical Atlas, by William R. Shepherd (Henry Holt and Co., New York, 1911). Some of the subjugated Khazars remained in the Slav-held lands their khakans had long ruled, and others migrated to Kiev and other parts of Russia, probably to a considerable extent because of the dislocations wrought by the Mongols under Genghis Khan (1162-1227), who founded in and beyond the old Khazar khanate the short-lived khanate of the Golden Horde. The Judaized Khazars underwent further dispersion both northwestward into Lithuanian and Polish areas, and also within Russia proper and the Ukraine. In 1240 in Kiev the Jewish community was uprooted, its surviving members finding refuge in towns further west along with the fleeing Russians, when the capital fell to the Mongol soldiers of Batu, the nephew of Genghis Khan. A short time later many of these expelled Jews returned to Kiev. Migrating thus, as some local power impelled them, the Khazar Jews became widely distributed in Western Russia. Into the Khazar khanate there had been a few Jewish immigrants--rabbis, traders, refugees--but the people of the Kievan Russian state did not facilitate the entry of additional Jews into their territory. The rulers of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also sought to exclude: Jews from areas under its control. From its earliest times the policy of the Russian government was that of complete exclusion of the Jews from its territories. For instance, Ivan IV (reign, 1533-1584) refused to allow Jewish merchants to travel in, Russia. Relations between Slays and the Judaized Khazars in their midst were never happy. The reasons were not racial--for the Slays had absorbed many minorities--but were ideological. The rabbis sent for by Khakan Obadiah were educated in and were zealots for the Babylonian Talmud, which after long labors by many hands had been completed on December 2, 499. In the thousands of synagogues which were built in the Khazar khanate, the imported rabbis and their successors were in complete control of the political, social, and religious thought of their people. So significant was the Babylonian Talmud as the principal cause o f Khazar  resistance to Russian efforts to end their political and religious separatism, and so significant also are the modern sequels, including those in the United States, that an extensive quotation on the subject from the great History of the Jews, by Professor H. Graetz (Vol. II, 1893, pp. 631 ff.) is here presented: The Talmud must not be regarded as an ordinary work, composed of twelve volumes; it possesses absolutely no similarity to any other literary production, but forms, without any figure of speech, a world of its own, which must be judged by its peculiar laws. The Talmud contains much that is frivolous of which it treats with great gravity and seriousness; it further reflects the various superstitious practices and views of its Persian birthplace which presume the efficacy of demonical medicines, of magic, incantations, miraculous cures, and interpretations of dreams. It also contains isolated instances of uncharitable judgments and decrees against the members of other nations and religions, and finally it favors an incorrect exposition of the scriptures, accepting, as it does, tasteless misrepresentations. More than six centuries lie petrified in the Talmud. Small wonder then, that the sublime and the common, the great and the small, the grave and the ridiculous, the altar and the ashes, the Jewish and the heathenish, be discovered side by side. The Babylonian Talmud is especially distinguished from the Jerusalem or Palestine Talmud by the flights of thought, the penetration of mind, the flashes of genius, which rise and vanish again. It was for this reason that the Babylonian rather than the Jerusalem Talmud became the fundamental possession of the Jewish race, its life breath, its very soul--nature and mankind, powers and events, were for the Jewish nation insignificant, non-essential, a mere phantom; the -- PJ 76 -- page. 53 only true reality was the Talmud. Not merely educated by the Talmud but actually living the life of its Babylonian background, which they may have regarded with increased devotion because most of the Jews of Mesopotamia [H: Ah--getting very close to "Sumar"!] had embraced Islam, the rabbi-governed Khazars had no intention whatever of losing their identity by becoming Russianized or Christian. The intransigent attitude of the rabbis was increased by their realization that their power would be lost if their people accepted controls other than Talmudic. These controls by rabbis were responsible not only for basic mores, but for such externals as the peculiarities of dress and hair. It has been frequently stated by writers on the subject that the "ghetto" was the work not of Russians or other Slays but of rabbis. As time passed, it came about that these Khazar people of mixed non-Russian stock, who hated the Russians and lived under Babylonian Talmudic law, became known in the western world, from their place of residence and their legal-religious code, as Russian Jews. In Russian lands after the fall of Kiev in 1240, there was a period of dissension and disunity. The struggle with the Mongols and other Asiatic khanates continued and from them the Russians learned much about effective military organization. Also, as the Mongols had not overrun Northern and Western Russia, there was a background for the resistance and counter-offensive which gradually eliminated the invaders. The capital of reorganized Russia was no longer Kiev but Moscow (hence the terms Moscovy and Muscovite). In 1613 the Russian nobles (boyars), desired a more stable government than they had had, and elected as their czar a boy named Michael Romanov [H: Oops, I've gone and done it now!], whose veins carried the blood of the grand dukes of Kiev and the grand dukes of Moscow. Under the Romanovs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was no change in attitude toward the Judaized Khazars, who scorned Russian civilization and stubbornly re-fused to enter the fold of Christianity. [: Ah, staff, please locate my presentation on the Russian Romanovs, please--I promised more and simply haven't found "time" to offer it--it is going to be IMPORTANT IN HISTORICAL HAPPENINGS. (See end of chapter page 86. This was excerpted from the PHOENIX JOURNAL #58 FROM THE FRYING PAN INTO THE PIT OF FIRE.)] Peter the Great [reign, 1682-1725] spoke of the Jews as 'rogues and cheats'. Elizabeth [reign, 1741-1762] expressed her attitude in the sentence: "From the enemies of Christ, I desire neither gain nor profit." With the expansion of Russia in the last half of the eighteenth century, many additional Jews were acquired with the new territory, especially in Russia's portion of divided Poland (1772, 1793, 1795). The Empress, Catherine II [reign, 1762-1796] had no choice but to receive the Jews along with the other inhabitants of the land, but she created out of the provinces taken from Poland a "Pale of Settlement" from which the newly acquired Jews could not move. As before, from that time on the attitude of the government was to hem in the Jews as much as possible. Under the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917 [Bolshevik Revolution]) many members of the Russian upper classes were educated in Germany, and the Russian nobility, already partly Scandinavian by blood, frequently married Germans or other Western Europeans. Likewise many of the Romanovs, themselves--in fact all of them who ruled in the later years of the dy-nasty--married into Western families. Prior to the nineteenth century the two occupants of the Russian throne best known in world history were Peter I, the Great, and Catherine II, the Great. The former--who in 1703 gave Russia its "West Window", St. Petersburg, later known as Petrograd, and recently as Leningrad--chose as his consort and successor on the throne as Catherine I [reign, 1725-1727], a captured -- PJ 76 -- page. 54 Marienburg (Germany) servant girl whose mother and father were respectively a Lithuanian peasant woman and a Swedish dragoon. Catherine II, the Great, was a German princess who was proclaimed reigning Empress of Russia after her husband, the ineffective Czar Peter HI, subnormal in mind and physique, left St. Petersburg. During her thirty-four years as Empress, Catherine, by studying such works as Blackstone's Commentaries, and by correspondence with such illustrious persons as Voltaire [H: Remember that along with Voltaire's other contributions--he had translated, NEWTON'S PRINCIPIA.], F.M. Grimm [H: Nora has done a beautiful study of "Grimm"], Frederick the Great, Diderot, and Maria-Theresa of Austria, kept herself in contact with the West. The nineteenth century czars were Catherine the Great's grandson, Alexander I [reign, 1801-1825--German wife]; his brother, Nicholas I [reign, 1825-1855--German wife, a Hohenzollern]; his son, Alexander II [reign, 1855-1881--German wife]; his son, Alexander III [reign, 1881-1894--Danish wife]; and his son, Nicholas II [reign, 1894-1917--German wife], who was murdered with his family (1918) after the Communists seized power (1917) in Russia. [H: And since history has now PROVEN that "COMMUNISM" is a construction of Jewish Zionists and that ALL of the government heads in new Communistic Russia after that Revolution were Jewish Zionists--what do we have to face here, readers?] Though many of the Romanovs, including Peter I and Catherine II, had far from admirable characters--a fact well advertised in American books on the subject--and though some of them including Nicholas II were not able rulers, a general purpose of the dynasty was to give their land certain of the advantages of Western Europe. In the West they characteristically sought alliances with one country or another, rather than ideological penetration. Like their Slavic overlords, the Judaized Khazars of Russia had various relationships with Germany. Their numbers from time to time, as during the Crusades, received accretions from the Jewish communities in Germany--principally into Poland and other areas not yet Russian; many of the ancestors of these people, however, had previously entered Germany from Slavic lands. More interesting than these migrations was the importation from Germany of an idea conceived by a prominent Jew of solving century-old tension between native majority populations and the Jews in their midst. In Germany, while Catherine the Great was Empress of Russia, a Jewish scholar and philosopher named Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) attracted wide and favorable attention among non-Jews and a certain following among Jews. His conception of the barrier between Jew and non-Jew, as analyzed by Grayzel, was that the "Jews had erected about themselves a mental ghetto to balance the physical ghetto around them." Mendelssohn's objective was to lead the Jews out of this mental ghetto into the wide world of general culture--without, however, doing harm to their specifically Jewish culture. The movement received the name Haskalah, which may be rendered as enlightenment. Among other things, Mendelssohn wished Jews in Germany to learn the German language. The Jews of Eastern Europe had from early days used corrupted versions of local vernaculars, written in the Hebrew alphabet just as the various vernaculars of Western Europe were written in the Latin alphabet, and to further his purpose Mendelssohn translated the Pentateuch--Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy--into standard German, using however, the accepted Hebrew alphabet. [H: How many of you KNEW this? If you didn't know THIS, then I ask that you read on and perhaps find that there are a lot of things you may well have not known. Further, there isn't going to be a "preacher" in any Christian pulpit who will tell you this. -- PJ 76 -- page. 55 Why? Because he will not have been allowed to LEARN this type of information in his "Judeo-Christian" seminary, my dear blind lambs!] Thus in one stroke he led his readers a step toward Westernization by the use of the German language and by offering them, instead of the Babylonian Talmud, a portion of scripture recognized by both Jew and Christian. The Mendelssohn views were developed in Russia in the nineteenth century, notably by Isaac Baer Levinsohn (17881860), the Russian Mendelssohn. Levinsohn was a scholar who, with Abraham Harkavy, delved into a field of Jewish history little known in the West, namely the settlement of Jews in Russia and their vicissitudes during the Dark Ages. Levinsohn was the first to express the opinion that the Russian Jews hailed not from Germany, as is commonly supposed, but from the banks of the Volga. This hypothesis, corroborated by tradition, Harkavy established as a fact. The reigns of the nineteenth century Czars showed a fluctuation of attitudes toward the Jewish state within a state. In general, Nicholas I had been less lenient than Alexander I toward his intractable non-Christian minority, but he took an immediate interest in the movement endorsed by the highly respected Levinsohn, for he saw in "Haskalah" an opportunity for possibly breaking down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars. He put in charge of the project of opening hundreds of Jewish schools a brilliant young Jew, Dr. Max Lilienthal. From its beginning, however, the haskalah movement had had bitter opposition among Jews in Germany--many of whom, including the famous Moses Hess, became ardent Jewish nationalists--and in Russia the opposition was fanatical. The great mass of Russian Jewry was devoid of all secular learning, steeped in fanaticism, and given to superstitious practices, and their leaders, for the most part, had no notion of tolerating a project which would lessen or destroy their control. These leaders believed correctly that the new education was designed to lessen the authority of the Talmud, which was the cause, as the Russians saw it, of the fanaticism and corrupt morals of the Jews. The leaders of the Jews also saw that the new schools were a way to bring the Jews closer to the Russian people and the Greek church. According to historian Raisin, the millions of Russian Jews were averse to having the government interfere with their inner and spiritual life by foisting upon them its educational measures. The soul of Russian Jewry sensed the danger lurking in the imperial scheme. Lilienthal was in their eyes a traitor and informer, and in 1845, to recover a modicum of prestige with his people, he shook the dust of bloody Russia from his feet. Thus the Haskalah movement failed in Russia to break down the separatism of the Judaized Khazars. When Nicholas I died, his son Alexander II [reign, 1855-1881] decided to try a new way of winning the Khazar minority to willing citizenship in Russia. He granted his people, including the Khazars, so many liberties that he was called the Czar Liberator. By irony, or nemesis, however, his liberal regime contributed substantially to the downfall of Christian Russia. Despite the ill- success of his Uncle Alexander's measures to effect the betterment of the obnoxious Jewish element he ordered a wholesale relaxation of oppressive and restraining regulations and Jews were free to attend all schools and universities and to travel without restrictions. The new freedom led, however, to results the "Liberator" had not anticipated. Educated, and free at last to organize nationally, the Judaized Khazars in Russia became not merely an indigestible mass in the body politic, the characteristic state within a state, but a formidable anti-government force. With non-Jews of nihilistic or other radical tendencies--the so-called Russian intelligentsia--they sought in the first instance to further their aims by assassinations. -- PJ 76 -- page. 56 Alexander tried to abate the hostility of the "terrorists" by granting more and more concessions, but on the day the last concessions were announced a bomb was thrown at his carriage. The carriage was wrecked, and many of his escorts were injured. Alexander escaped as by a miracle, but a second bomb exploded near him as he was going to aid the injured. He was horribly mangled, and died within an hour. Thus perished the Czar Liberator. [H: Never seems to change does it?] Some of those involved in earlier attempts to assassinate Alexander II were of Jewish Khazar background. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, the assassination of Alexander II in which a Jewess had played a part revived a latent "anti- Semitism". Resentful of precautions taken by the murdered Czar's son and successor, Alexander III, and also possessing a new world plan, hordes of Jews, some of them highly educated in Russian universities, migrated to other European countries and to America. The emigration continued under Nicholas II. Many Jews remained in Russia, however, for in 1913 the Jewish population of Russia amounted to 6,946,000. [H: Still think the "Holocaust" could have happened as the Jews say??? Remember, in 1991 the number of Jews killed in the death camps ROSE (by Jewish insistence) to 6 million 500 thousand!! Now, how do you equate that number with the NUMBER WHO GET RESTITUTION FROM THE GERMANS RIGHT NOW!?! Hey, don't throw stones at ME--this number came directly from Univ. Jew. Encyc., Vol. IX, p.285.] -- PJ 76 -- page. 57 --- NEXT PAGE